How to create a CCM

How to create a cross-chain message inside a command, in order to send it to another blockchain.

1. Create the React module

In order to send cross-chain messages from sidechain to sidechain, it is required to create the corresponding CCM in a module command. To achieve this, create a new module(or adjust an existing module) which will be registered on the sidechain intending to communicate with an interoperable module of another chain.

Because we want to send reactions to Hello messages cross-chain, we call it the "React" module.

Check out the complete working example implementation of the React module inside the interoperability example.

Assuming the sidechain is already initialized, move into the root folder of the sidechain client, and generate the skeleton for the new module as usual:

lisk generate:module react

Currently, there is no way to generate an interoperable module directly, so we need to make certain modifications to the module after generating it, in order to make it interoperable.

Inside the react/module.ts file, replace the class BaseModule with BaseInteroperableModule.

import { BaseInteroperableModule, ModuleMetadata, ModuleInitArgs } from 'lisk-sdk';

export class ReactModule extends BaseInteroperableModule {
    // ...

Additionally, create a new file called cc_method.ts, and add a skeleton for potential cross-chain methods the module is offering.

import { BaseCCMethod } from 'lisk-sdk';

export class ReactInteroperableMethod extends BaseCCMethod {}

Now import the ReactInteroperableMethod and use it to create a new method called crossChainMethod inside the module.

In the end, the module should look similar to the example below:

/* eslint-disable class-methods-use-this */
/* eslint-disable @typescript-eslint/member-ordering */
import { BaseInteroperableModule, ModuleMetadata, ModuleInitArgs } from 'lisk-sdk';
import { ReactEndpoint } from './endpoint';
import { ReactMethod } from './method';
import { ReactInteroperableMethod } from './cc_method';

export class ReactModule extends BaseInteroperableModule {
    public endpoint = new ReactEndpoint(this.stores, this.offchainStores);
    public method = new ReactMethod(this.stores,;
    public commands = [];
    public crossChainMethod = new ReactInteroperableMethod(this.stores,;

    public metadata(): ModuleMetadata {
        return {
            endpoints: [],
            commands: => ({
                params: command.schema,
            assets: [],


Now that the interoperable module is initialized, let’s create the command which will be used to create the CCM on the sidechain.

2. Add required schemas and constants

Create a new file react/constants.ts and export a constant CROSS_CHAIN_COMMAND_REACT representing the name of the new command.

export const CROSS_CHAIN_COMMAND_REACT = 'crossChainReact';

Now, let’s think about what data exactly we want to send in the CCM.

For the simplicity of this example, the react CCM includes the following parameters:

Create a new file react/schemas.ts and export a corresponding interface for the CCM parameters.

Parameters for the react CCM
  1. reactionType: A number indicating the type of the reaction. In this example, we will only implement type 0, which is representing a like.

  2. helloMessageID: The ID of the hello message to react to. As there is always only one Hello message per account maximum, we can use the account address of the sender of the Hello message as unique ID for a Hello message.

  3. data: An additional property allowing to send a specific string. Could be used to send custom data or a reaction, like small replies.

The parameters for the crossChainReact command therefore include the Parameters for the react CCM, and two additional parameters:

Additional parameters for the crossChainReact command
  1. receivingChainID: The chain ID of the chain the CCM is sent to.

  2. messageFee: The fee for sending the CCM across chains.

Additionally, export corresponding schemas for the parameters of the React CCM.

const reactionType = {
	dataType: 'uint32',
	fieldNumber: 1,

const helloMessageID = {
	dataType: 'string',
	fieldNumber: 2,

const data = {
	dataType: 'string',
	fieldNumber: 3,
	minLength: 0,
	maxLength: 64,

// Schema for the parameters of the crossChainReact CCM
export const CCReactMessageParamsSchema = {
	// The unique identifier of the schema.
	$id: '/lisk/react/ccReactMessageParams',
	type: 'object',
	// The required parameters for the CCM.
	required: ['reactionType', 'helloMessageID', 'data'],
	// A list describing the required parameters for the CCM.
	properties: {

// Schema for the parameters of the react crossChainReact command
export const CCReactCommandParamsSchema = {
	// The unique identifier of the schema.
	$id: '/lisk/react/ccReactCommandParams',
	type: 'object',
	// The required parameters for the command.
	required: [...CCReactMessageParamsSchema.required, 'messageFee'],
	// A list describing the available parameters for the command.
	properties: {
		receivingChainID: {
			dataType: 'bytes',
			fieldNumber: 4,
			minLength: 4,
			maxLength: 4,
		messageFee: {
			dataType: 'uint64',
			fieldNumber: 5,

Create a new file react/types.ts, to define types that we will need when implementing the cross-chain command in the next step.

Export the types as shown in the example below:

import {
} from 'lisk-sdk';

export type TokenID = Buffer;

// Parameters of the crossChainReact CCM
export interface CCReactMessageParams {
    // A number indicating the type of the reaction.
    reactionType: number;
    // ID of the Hello message being reacted to.
    helloMessageID: string;
    // Optional field for data / messages.
    data: string;

// Parameters of the crossChainReact command
export interface CCReactCommandParams extends CCReactMessageParams {
    // The chain ID of the receiving chain.
    receivingChainID: Buffer;
    // The fee for sending the CCM across chains.
    messageFee: bigint;

export interface InteroperabilityMethod {
    getOwnChainAccount(methodContext: ImmutableMethodContext): Promise<OwnChainAccount>;
        methodContext: MethodContext,
        feeAddress: Buffer,
        module: string,
        crossChainCommand: string,
        receivingChainID: Buffer,
        fee: bigint,
        parameters: Buffer,
        timestamp?: number,
    ): Promise<void>;
    error(methodContext: MethodContext, ccm: CCMsg, code: number): Promise<void>;
    terminateChain(methodContext: MethodContext, chainID: Buffer): Promise<void>;
    getChannel(methodContext: MethodContext, chainID: Buffer): Promise<ChannelData>;
    getMessageFeeTokenID(methodContext: ImmutableMethodContext, chainID: Buffer): Promise<Buffer>;
    getMessageFeeTokenIDFromCCM(methodContext: ImmutableMethodContext, ccm: CCMsg): Promise<Buffer>;

3. Initialize the cross-chain command

Now create a new command called crossChainReact:

lisk generate:command react crossChainReact

To indicate that this command will create a new CCM, update the file name to react_cc_command.ts.

Now open the file and import the constants, schemas, and types defined above.

Next, define the following properties of the command:

  • name: Define a method to get the name of the command and set it to the CROSS_CHAIN_COMMAND_REACT constant. The same name will be used for the cross-chain command which will accept the CCM.

  • schema: Set the command schema to equal CCReactCommandParamsSchema.

  • init(): To initialize the module, we need access to the methods of the interoperability module. Update the methods to expect the interoperabilityMethod as an argument, and assign it to the private property _interoperabilityMethod of the crossChainReact command.

import {
} from 'lisk-sdk';
import { CROSS_CHAIN_COMMAND_REACT } from '../constants';
import { CCReactCommandParamsSchema, CCReactMessageParamsSchema } from '../schemas';
import { CCReactMessageParams, CCReactCommandParams, InteroperabilityMethod } from '../types';

export class CrossChainReactCommand extends BaseCommand {
    private _interoperabilityMethod!: InteroperabilityMethod;
    public schema = CCReactCommandParamsSchema;

    public get name(): string {

    public init(args: { interoperabilityMethod: InteroperabilityMethod }) {
        this._interoperabilityMethod = args.interoperabilityMethod;

4. Command verification

In the react_cc_command.ts file, implement the command verification.

To keep the example simple, we only check if the receivingChainID parameter isn’t equal to the value of the sending chain.

As desired, extend the verify() hook to include more checks for the other parameters as well.

public async verify(
    context: CommandVerifyContext<CCReactCommandParams>,
): Promise<VerificationResult> {
    const { params, logger } = context;'+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++');;'+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++');

    try {
        if (params.receivingChainID.equals(context.chainID)) {
            throw new Error('Receiving chain cannot be the sending chain.');
    } catch (err) {
        return {
            status: VerifyStatus.FAIL,
            error: err as Error,

    return {
        status: VerifyStatus.OK,

Once it is verified that the parameters are valid, we can create and send the corresponding CCM.

5. Command execution

For this, adjust the execute() method as shown in the snippet below.

Use the .send() method of the Interoperability module to send the prepared CCM.

public async execute(context: CommandExecuteContext<CCReactCommandParams>): Promise<void> {
    const {
        transaction: { senderAddress },
    } = context;

    const ccReactMessageParams: CCReactMessageParams = {
        reactionType: params.reactionType,
        helloMessageID: params.helloMessageID,

    await this._interoperabilityMethod.send(
        codec.encode(CCReactMessageParamsSchema, ccReactMessageParams),

6. Final updates of the module and app.ts

Go back to the file react/module.ts and update it as described in the code comments.

import { BaseInteroperableModule, ModuleMetadata, ModuleInitArgs } from 'lisk-sdk';
import { CrossChainReactCommand } from './commands/react_cc_command';
import { ReactEndpoint } from './endpoint';
import { ReactMethod } from './method';
import { ReactInteroperableMethod } from './cc_method';
// Import the type for the InteroperabilityMethod
import { InteroperabilityMethod } from './types';

export class ReactModule extends BaseInteroperableModule {
    public endpoint = new ReactEndpoint(this.stores, this.offchainStores);
    public method = new ReactMethod(this.stores,;
    public commands = [new CrossChainReactCommand(this.stores,];
    public crossChainMethod = new ReactInteroperableMethod(this.stores,;
    // Create a private member to store the methods of the interoperability module
    private _interoperabilityMethod!: InteroperabilityMethod;

    // ...

    // Assign the methods of the interoperability module to _interoperabilityMethod
    public addDependencies(interoperabilityMethod: InteroperabilityMethod) {
        this._interoperabilityMethod = interoperabilityMethod;

    // Lifecycle hooks
    // eslint-disable-next-line @typescript-eslint/require-await
    public async init(_args: ModuleInitArgs) {
        // Pass the methods of the interoperability module to the crossChainReact command
            interoperabilityMethod: this._interoperabilityMethod,

Open the app.ts file, and register the module to the application.

As the ReactModule is an interoperable module, it is required to call app.registerInteroperableModule() additionally.

Last but not least, call the addDependencies() method of the ReactModule with the methods of the interoperability module as a parameter.

Please remove the redundant registration of the ReactModule in the modules.ts file. It was added automatically during the command initialization.
import { Application, PartialApplicationConfig } from 'lisk-sdk';
import { registerModules } from './modules';
import { registerPlugins } from './plugins';
import { ReactModule } from './modules/react/module';

export const getApplication = (config: PartialApplicationConfig): Application => {
    const { app, method } = Application.defaultApplication(config);
    const reactModule = new ReactModule();


    return app;

When a user posts a crossChainReact transaction on a sidechain that registered the React module, a corresponding CCM is sent to the mainchain by a relayer node, where it will be forwarded to the designated receiving sidechain.

For the other sidechain to be able to accept this CCM, we need to add a corresponding cross-chain command to the Hello module of the receiving chain.

To learn how to implement cross-chain commands on the receiving chain, check out the next guide: How to execute a CCM.